a. What makes reasoning using samples a kind of reasoning by analogy? Use examples to develop your answer.
b. What is a representative sample? Use the SEEC definition method from chapter 2 in developing your answer.
c. Is a large sample guaranteed to be representative? Explain using examples.
d. Is a randomly collected sample guaranteed to be representative? Explain using an example.
e. Could a sample be representative even when it is not randomly collected? Explain using an example.
f. What is it for a target group to be homogeneous? Use the SEEC definition method to develop your answer.
g. What is a self-selected sample and why do they tend not to be representative?
h. Suppose that Jones and Henry are both collecting a sample of Americans for a survey. Suppose that Jones’ sample is randomly collected and that Henry’s is self-selected. Is it possible that the two samples contain the very same members? Explain.
i. What is a hasty generalization, and what makes it a critical thinking mistake?
In assessing whether a sample is large enough, we need to know how homogeneous the target group is with respect to the relevant property. To your knowledge, are the following target groups very, somewhat, or not at all homogeneous with respect to the following properties?
a. Males in your courses; study habits
b. Males in your course; political opinions
c. Males in your course; anatomy
d. Mice; anatomy
e. Roses; genetic makeup
f. Soft drinks; sugar content
g. Cars; safety features
h. Cars; reliability records