For each of the following, find a conclusion that follows validly and one that does not.
a. The table is made of wood and wood always dries out. b. Cats are warm-blooded, and warm-blooded animals eat meat. c. Jones is a bachelor. d. Frank murdered Henry.
Using the SEEC definition method from Chapter 2, construct a definition of validity that would help someone who had never studied critical thinking understand it.
Using the concepts you have learned in this chapter, explain why it is better for an argument to be valid than for it not to be valid.
In Chapter 1, we saw that emotional reasons are not epistemic ones. Using the concepts from this chapter, explain why this is so.
If an argument has a false premise, might it still be valid? Using the concepts from this chapter, explain your answer, and give an example.
Using the SEEC definition method from Chapter 2, define the following:
(i) Premise indicator (ii) Independent premise (iii) Sub-argument
The following arguments are not valid. Add a premise to make each of them valid. Assess whether the missing premise you added is true.
a. (i) The glass is full of water. I can see it with my own eyes. (ii)The glass is full of water. Joan told me so.
b. (i) The car is really low on gas. We have to stop. (ii) The car has a flat tire. We have to stop.
c. (i) The sun will rise tomorrow. After all, it has risen every day for the past million years. (ii) The sun will rise tomorrow. For the Earth continues to spin on its axis.