The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will increasingly transform the way in which people work and firms function and do business. Referring to a firm of which you have or can easily acquire some basic knowledge, reflect on the opportunities an

The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will increasingly transform the way in which people work and firms function and do business. Referring to a firm of which you have or can easily acquire some basic knowledge, reflect on the opportunities and challenges that will be possibly brought to that firm by AI.
Then, select three subject areas covered in the lectures and, for each of them, discuss:
• Which specific ideas/concepts/frameworks from that subject area can help the firm seize the opportunities and/or overcome the challenges associated with AI, and how those ideas/concepts/frameworks can be used in practice;
• What specific actions such ideas/concepts/frameworks prompt the firm to take;
• What interdependences there might be between actions taken in different subject areas (e.g., actions taken in one area might influence, or interfere with, actions taken in another area, and so on), and;
• What practical implications such interdependences may have.

the subject areas are:
1. Organising and Organisation Theories; 2. Managing Change; 4. Strategic Management; 5. Business Models 6. Organisational culture 7. leaderships 8. organizational behavior 9. emotional intelligence 10. relationship management 11. trust

This AI can not be still operated by a human it must replace humans completely it can be an extra devision in an organization that carries out a certain task or product completely which is controlled by the AI.

briefly introduce the AI and the firm in the introduction(max 500 words) don’t write a lot on it the main focus is the selected three subject areas and the three bullet points above.

AI needs to be implemented in a known firm( because you can spend less words explaining about the firm) something that hasn’t been done yet too must be original.

if you have chosen the three topics(subject areas) i have a list of reading under each topic tell me via this website and i will upload them they must be included ( and will save you time) but please do read additional material and include it. i will upload some notes as well but first tell me the three topics and i will do so.

an example: (do not use this exactly can use something similar as these were examples given in class)

AI introduced:
a.drums replacing the surveying team
b.customer relationship in a firm

for b. :
Will such a change effect the business model? if so how? even if it does you can still not choose it as part of your main three topics.

Will such a change effect strategy?
-it will be more personalized ( focus of costumers more)- better analysis/ differentiation of costumer they know what to target thsi becomes more efficient and help to reduce cost don’t need to do massive marketing.

-will it effect the culture? if it impacts staff and workers yes then it will effect the culture/
e.g do the other staff need to learn to communicate with new AI staff

thus collaboration with other staff means we need to introduce organisation learning. thus this Culture change shapes the orgnisational structure (hence showing interdependency between these two main topics) as the structure must be more flexible and decentralized.

-Will it effect leadership?

all of theses questions need to be asked only for your three main topics don’t need to include leadership or organizational culture or Business model or any of the rest mentioned above if you haven’t chosen it as one of your three main topics however you can still reference other topics/ subject area if you have sufficiently talked about the three main topics and the ideas/concepts/frameworks from that subject area and the three bullet points in the paper question above then yes but not in detail only a bit.

DO NOT copy paste anything word by word, i will check everything and read and check with your sources. reference everything. every paragraph should be referenced Harvard style i’ve had an issue with a previous writer read through the whole thing found that he poorly paraphrased sentences changed maybe a word and copy pasted a lot as well i will not tolerate this.

Don’t use BIM as your AI

some questions and answers for you:( which also answers the layout of this paper)
1. In the structure of my paper, how should I treat the opportunities and challenges brought to my firm by AI? How extensively should I describe/illustrate them?
Such opportunities/challenges for the firm are simply meant to set the stage for your analysis and discussion. Do not overdo in describing them in detail. Instead, discuss how the firm can seize/overcome them.
So, introduce briefly one or few major opportunities/challenges associated with the adoption of AI in specific sectors of the firm’s activities (e.g. new range of products/services, new processes or new ways to manage existing processes, etc.). Then, use most of the paper to discuss how the firm will respond (that is what the paper will be marked on) – i.e. What types of internal adjustments (actions) will the firm have to implement? In which subject areas? Using which ideas/concepts/frameworks from those subject areas? With what kind of interdependences between those actions? What practical implications will such interdependences have?

2. Given that the type of AI isn’t the important part of this paper, should we be looking to discuss opportunities/risks with supporting articles/news stories? Or should they be speculative?
That’s right: the type of AI adoption/application is not important, and you only need to choose one in order to set the stage for your discussion of the actions to be taken in three subject areas. Therefore, you can either (1) use a speculative example and consider a hypothetical/conjectural future scenario, or (2) refer to a real application of AI as implemented by many firms today and documented in news articles/stories.

3. How many opportunities/challenges should I consider? In how many sectors of the firm’s activities?
This is up to you: it depends on the argument you want to make, and the type of opportunity/challenge you consider. My suggestion is to keep it simple and focused.
Usually, the impact of the adoption of AI is such that even just one change in a single sector of the firm’s activities (say, a new range of services) will give you enough scope for actions in a number of subject areas. Remember that the purpose of the exercise is to provide evidence that you master a number of concepts, tools, and frameworks within the broad discipline of management, and know how to employ them in response to even just one major opportunity/challenge.

4. Would it be possible to clarify what these subject areas could be?
Yes. The easiest way is to look at the Schedule of Sessions; each lecture covers a subject area within the broad discipline of management: 1. Organising and Organisation Theories; 2. Managing Change; 4. Strategic Management; 5. Business Models; and so on. For each area, look at the content covered during the lecture (slides) and select the ideas/concepts/frameworks that you think will help build your argument for the assignment.

5. Should we look at how our chosen subject areas are affected/actioned at the organizational level or at the project level?
Many of the concepts, frameworks and tools we cover in PM8 apply at both levels, in which case you are free to decide the level at which you want to discuss the firm’s response.
But there are exceptions: in some subject areas (e.g. Strategic Management), we mostly explore concepts and tools at the corporate and business levels.

6. Can I select a major firm from my country that is not a major firm elsewhere? Or, can I select a firm that’s not a ‘major’ firm at all – e.g. a small/medium enterprise (SME)?
The main reason for suggesting that you pick a major/renown firm is that, by doing so, you do not need to write that much to introduce the firm and their business and how it can be disrupted by the adoption of AI. In other words, it will be easier for you to set the stage for the rest of the paper (your analysis related to the subject areas). Said that, you are free to choose any firm, even one that is not globally known.

7. Can I choose for my analysis a firm from any industry/sector (for example, other than the construction industry)?
Yes, an existing firm from any industry/sector.
8. Can I use BIM as an example of AI in the term paper?
No, BIM is not AI. However, you may think of a scenario where AI enables a different, smarter use of BIM, or you use BIM-related technologies and services in new ways that are enabled by cognitive computing and machine learning.

9. Do I need to conduct a case study?
You do not need to collect and analyse data about the firm – that is, no, you do not need to conduct a case study. Instead, work with the basic information about the firm that you either have already or can easily find publicly available.

10. As I am analysing a specific firm, I may need to refer to news such as Financial Times, or industry magazines. Or should I use only academic literature as a source?
Data/information about the organisation can come from any source, including news and blogs. But you need a really limited amount of such information to say what firm it is, what they do, and what opportunities/challenges AI might bring to it.

Instead, scientific literature – for example, the references suggested for the module readings or similar readings identified by you – is needed to support your analysis/argument of the actions the firm would take to respond to such opportunities/challenges. This is where your engagement with, learning from, and referencing of the readings has to be considerable/substantial.
Please, seek further support from your Tutorial Leader if this point is not clear enough.

11. Is it advised to introduce the firm at beginning of the paper?
At the very beginning of the Introduction, mention briefly the main characteristics of the firm that are relevant to the assignment question and to your argument. The recommendation is not to indulge in details that are not useful/relevant. Your focus is not the firm per in general, but selected and very specific aspects of it.
For example: will the firm have to change its organisational culture, as part of your argument? If yes, you describe the current culture, and say how it will have to change. If not, do not mention the organisational culture at all, and focus instead on other aspects.

12. Can I mix different lectures/models/frameworks?
Yes, you must. As you do it, make sure you use content from this module (this is an assessment of your learning within PM8) and/or literature that you identify independently as related, in your opinion, to the module content.

13. When discussing interdependences between the subject areas, can we be bring in and link any subject areas outside of the 3 we are focusing on? For example, I have chosen Change, Leadership, and Strategy as my 3 subject areas: if I have a point on Business Models that relates to Strategy, or a point on Emotional Intelligence that relates to Leadership, can I bring it up? Or does all the discussion need to relate to the 3 chosen subject areas?
Yes, once you have fully discussed concepts/frameworks from three subject areas and their possible interdependences, your line of reasoning may expand to include related concepts from other areas – indeed, that is very easily the case with Strategy and Business Models, or Leadership and Emotional Intelligence. So, feel free to include such extra links and reflections in your discussion as long as you have enough room (word count) to illustrate your point in detail. If it is too thin a point (for example, a very concise statement like “…and by the way, this will also have important implications in terms of changing the business model”) it will hardly add any value to your overall argument.
Similarly, when the “extra points” happen to be all in one specific area, feel free to add that as a fourth subject area altogether, especially if you feel that such addition strengthens your argument considerably. But make sure you strike the right balance between breadth and depth.

14. When I select concepts/tools/frameworks that are useful for my analysis, should I describe/illustrate them, or just use/apply them?
You need to focus on how each of the selected concepts/tools/frameworks apply to the situation you are discussing. Do not describe/illustrate/explicate them. Imagine that the readers of your paper are the same authors of those tools and frameworks: would they need to be told what those concepts are? Instead, simply reference them and focus on discussing how each of those ideas/concepts/frameworks can play can help the firm to respond to the opportunities/challenges of AI.

15. I have a ‘technical background’ (engineering), and it’s the first time I write an essay. I feel disoriented: so many things to read, so many frameworks to choose from, no clear direction.
This kind of ‘discomfort’ is part of the learning objectives. Learning occurs when you are pushed out of your comfort zone, and forced to look for solutions independently and creatively.
Take the opportunity of every lecture and tutorial session to address your doubts, discuss your initial ideas, and ask for feedback. You will find support in structuring your ideas further and gradually develop and improve your argument.

16. What is a theory? What is a theoretical approach?
A theory can be defined as a set of related ideas or principles that explain a fact or phenomenon – i.e., how/and why something happens, or how/why a relationship between things, facts, events, or other entities exists. A theoretical approach is a way of looking at a situation or phenomenon through the conceptual lenses provided by a specific theory.
The content delivered within PM8 draws on a number of management theories, and it also includes concepts and frameworks that do not necessarily form theories, but are still powerful tools to analyse situations and support decision making. It is NOT a requirement for this assignment that you adopt any particular theory or theoretical approach. You can provide adequate support to your argument by relying on any of the ideas/concepts/frameworks covered in the lectures, whether or not they contribute to form a coherent theory or theoretical approach.

17. Should the paper include a table of content?
This is not a requirement.

18. Should we use the format of an essay or of a report?
You are expected to present an argument, so the essay format (longer paragraphs, discursive style) is the most appropriate one.

19. How many references should I include?
There is no rule of thumb about the right number of references. However, the more you read and use (and cite) the literature to shape and refine your argument, the more you improve the depth and breadth of your analysis, and the quality of the paper. Definitely do not expect that this can be achieved with 5 or 6 references only.

20. Would it be possible to know which readings we should focus on, and which ones are not relevant to the assignment at all?
No. For the reasons mentioned about “feeling disoriented”.
It is your argument, and you are (or will soon be, as the learning goes on) in the best position to judge whether a reading is relevant to your argument.

21. Is it a problem if many/most of my references are not included in your reading list, as these are more relevant to my argument?
Feel free to use any readings not included in the provided list – as long as they classify as scientific literature.

22.

Please could you clarify a point on the term paper…In the brief it says:
‘Reflect on the opportunities and challenges that will be possibly brought to that firm by AI. ‘
Given that the type of AI isn’t the important part of this paper, should we be looking to discuss opportunities/risks with supporting articles/news stories? Or should they be speculative?

Ans:

That’s right: the type of AI adoption/application is not important, and you only need to choose one in order to set the stage for your discussion of the actions to be taken in three subject areas. Therefore, you can either (1) use a speculative example and consider a hypothetical/conjectural future scenario, or (2) refer to a real application of AI as implemented by many firms today and documented in news articles/stories.

23.

Looking at the guidance given for the essay, it’s mentioned that we must focus on three subject areas. Is there any way to clarify what these areas could be?

Ans:

Yes. The easiest way is to look at the Schedule of Sessions; each lecture is a subject area within the broad discipline of management.

1. Organizing and Organization Theories
2. Managing Change
4. Strategic Management
5. Business Models

and so on.

For each area, look at the content covered during the lecture (slides) and select the ideas/concepts/frameworks that you think will help build your argument for the assignment.

24.Could you confirm whether our chosen organisation for the assignment should be “for profit” or whether we could use NHS?

Ans:

Definitely a business firm, hence for profit. You could look at a private firm in healthcare, if that’s the industry of interest.

25.
The company I am discussing already has AI implemented, I saw in FAQ’s you that we can do that which is great.
My question is: when writing my introduction, can I briefly introduce the company, what it does, the AI’s role in the company, and then say the paper will discuss ( e.g. Change, organizational structure, and business model) and how they are affected by AI? Without discussing the organizational structure and business model of the chosen firm specifically because I can’t find any relevant information to that. It is from my understanding that we should worry about how a firm would overcome these challenges, rather then discussing a specific firm, the (e.g. business model) it has, and how that model would change.

Ans.

OK to briefly introduce the company and then discuss the impact AI will have. But: if Business Models is one of the areas that you want to address (together with Change Management, and Organisational Structure), how can you discuss the changes to the firm’s business model if you don’t say anything about the old/existing model?

It’s not mandatory that you collect specific information about the firm’s business model before the introduction of AI. You can work on assumptions on what that could be and then discuss how it might change due to AI.

IMPORTANT: If you pick a firm that’s already adopted and successfully implemented AI, you might be tempted to simply TELL how things (your selected areas) went for them, or what they changed or how they adapted to AI. Bear in mind that telling a story is not what the paper brief asks you. You need to think critically and DISCUSS the changes that were made, and their mutual interdependences. For example, you might identifies weaknesses and suggest alternative changes or other solutions.

26.

Just following on the chosen organisation topic, in terms of AI, is it ok if the organisation that we choose has already implemented/is in the process of implementing AI? That would mean that they are already in the process of changing the organisation to adapt to this new challenge or even that they have already changed, would that be a problem in identifying challenges?

Also, in terms of the organisation of the paper, as I understand from the briefing document, we will have (apart from references, etc):
– Introduction
– Main body
– Conclusions and recommendations

It is clear to me that in the introduction, as mentioned before in another QA, will be a brief paragraph/section to set the scene, where the references can come from any source. My doubts come in the main body structure; I understand that we need to identify three subject areas and use ideas/concepts from these areas to make our argument towards overcoming challenges which will occur as a result of the implementation of AI in the firm, my question is: on this section, we will have a mixture of ideas/concepts referenced, together with our own assumptions (opinion) on the application of these ideas and the hypothetical circumstances of the firm, which will obviously be subjective and not referenced, is that ok?

My understanding on previous papers that I have done in the past (as student) is that the main body develops a literature review (state of the art)/exposition of facts which needs to be supported with evidence, and we were only expressing our own opinion at the end, in the conclusion, reason why I am a bit confused.

Obviously, the conclusion will be, again, based on our own opinion, following on the previous mixture of referenced concepts/ideas linked to the circumstances of the company and how, on our own opinion, these concepts can be applied to achieve a successful outcome.

I hope my questions make sense, since I have presented them more as “statements” rather than questions themselves, but it is my way or seeking reassurance on the way I have understood the structure of the paper.

Ans:

You raise two main points. Both make complete sense.

27.

Question about ongoing AI implementation
Is it ok if the organisation that we choose has already implemented/is in the process of implementing AI? That would mean that they are already in the process of changing the organisation to adapt to this new challenge or even that they have already changed, would that be a problem in identifying challenges?

Answer: Whatever the stage (e.g., idea gestation, initial implementation, consolidation of the change), the adoption of AI will come with numerous challenges at both the individual and the firm level. So, you will have plenty of material to work with.
My only recommendation (not that your question makes it necessary, but it is still worth mentioning) is NOT to simply “describe” or “report” a case of AI as it unfolded in real life. You are expected to take on some of the above challenges as a manager who’s directly involved and has to make decisions for the firm/company, instead of simply saying what people in an existing firm have recently already done. In other words, in PM8, we train future managers, not future journalists.

Question about the content of the central part of the term paper
In the main body, we will have a mixture of ideas/concepts referenced, together with our own assumptions (opinion) on the application of these ideas and the hypothetical circumstances of the firm, which will obviously be subjective and not referenced, is that ok?

Answer: Yes, that’s correct, and OK. The main body is where you state the problem and analyse it – referring, as you say, to ideas/concepts/frameworks from the selected subject areas and the suggested (by you) applications of those ideas/concepts to the specific firm. In Conclusions, you summarise the lessons learnt and illustrate the possible implications/recommendations for similar firms or other organisations.

some links for you:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/search?q=artificial%20intelligence

Harness the Disruptive Effects of Artificial Intelligence
This article discusses general opportunities and challenges associated with the advent of AI. Good food for thought at a macro level.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-37494653
Mentioned in the discussion about the importance of understanding the internal dynamics of business ecosystems and the enabling role of technological platforms and platform architectures.

Japan’s ‘Karoshi’ Culture Still Produces Dangerously Long Work Hours
About the role of national culture and its influence on organizational culture .this is useful to reflect about possible cultural changes (or shocks!) triggered by the use of AI in some jobs/professions.

https://hbr.org/2016/11/how-artificial-intelligence-will-redefine-management?referral=00202&cm_mmc=email-_-newsletter-_-weekly_hotlist-_-hotlist_date&utm_source=newsletter_weekly_hotlist&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=hotlist_date&spMailingID=15838

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