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perception of friendship from adolescence to early adulthood

– This is a qualitative research report base on the interviews data.
– 2500 words.
This must draw extensively on the Developmental Psychology literature, not social theories, e.g, Stages of psychosocial development (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development) and Theories of cognitive development, theories of interpersonal relationships.
The topic is the perception of friendship from adolescence to early adulthood, 3 interviews were conducted, with 3 opportunity participants.
The interviews were carried out in the university building, each interview for half an hour, 2 females and 1 male… their ages between (22-24) …
Thematic analysis should be used to analysis the information.
The themes are (identity, cognation, emotion, self-esteem)   all the required information can be found in the 3 interviews.
Please note that this report about exploring the development stage through the perception of friendship.
It should be:

  • Practical is well designed and carried out with a high degree of professionalism and in accordance with BPS ethical guidelines
  • Working relationships, teamwork and leadership skills are evident
  • Well articulated research rationale drawing extensively from the developmental psychology literature
  • Report shows evidence has been collected, analysed and critiqued from primary and secondary sources
  • Links made between theory and practice
  • Ideas are effectively expressed, and information is communicated appropriately and accurately in a written report according to the guidelines given above

The structure of the report:

  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Introduction and research aims
  • Method
  • Analysis and discussion
  • Reflexivity
  • References
  • Appendices

You should :

  • Write the whole report in past tense
  • Avoid overly long sentences
  • Don’t start consecutive sentences with the same word to avoid your work sounding ‘list-like’
  • Define specialist terms and acronyms the first time you use them
  • Avoid quantitative language
  • Use developmental theory
  • Make a plan of the introduction and analysis and discussion sections before beginning writing them

Familiarise yourself with transition words to help your work flow

  • To make a related point – Accordingly additionally, furthermore, moreover
  • To show contrast – however, despite, although, in contrast, whereas, rather, nevertheless
  • To show similarity – similarly, likewise
  • To give examples – for example, an illustration, for instance, for example
  • To summarise – in summary, in conclusion, on the whole

For each paragraph you should be able to state:

  • What is the idea being communicated in this paragraph?
  • How does it help answer the research question?
  • How does it strengthen the argument being made?
  • Is there more evidence to support your point?
  • Is there evidence here that doesn’t relate to the main idea of the paragraph?

Abstract (100-150)

  • Summarising and ‘selling’ your research
  • The abstract is concise summary of your research
  • Topic, method, findings, interpretation
  • It allows the reader to decide whether to read the whole research report

Introduction (800 words)
Opening paragraph

  • Setting the scene for your research
  • Introduce the topic and the point of concern
  • Don’t start too broad
  • Don’t use speculation or case studies

Middle paragraphs

  • What past research has been conducted on this topic?
  • What has it found?
  • What were the limitations?
  • What theory can explain these findings?
  • What do we still not know?
  • How does it link back to the question of interest?

The rationale

  • The rationale should be built throughout the introduction, but reiterated/summarised at the end of the introduction
  • Why are you conducting your research
  • How does your study build on past research?
  • What is your research question?

Method (600 words)
Refer to materials in the appendices where relevant

  • State the type of interview you used : semi-structured interviews (qualitative research)


  • Participant recruitment strategy : (opportunity) they all in the early adulthood stage.
  • Number of participants : 3
  • Participant characteristics : age, sex / 2F , 1M
  • Maintain the anonymity of your participants: giving them nicknames

Data collection

  • Briefly describe the formation and features of the interview schedule


  • Describe the procedure followed

The participants were invited to the university building, and they were told about the aim of study and they told that they will kept anonymous, and the sign the constant form, then the interview take place in the meeting rooms in the university, 2 researchers interviewed each participant.
Data analysis
Clearly state how the data were analysed and why this approach was most suitable
Thematic analysis

  • Reassure the reader of the ethical principles followed

Analysis and Discussion (900 words)

  • Sentence to summarise your analysis and state the number of themes identified

(identity , cognation , emotion , self-esteem)
Discussion of findings

  • Use themes as sub-headings
  • Use quotes from the transcripts to support your ideas ( with the lines and the name of participant..e.g/ BS line 275)
    • Give the participant name (pseudonym) and transcript page and line number for each quote presented
    • Refer to each extract you use
  • Discuss the themes in relation to the literature reviewed and offer theoretical interpretations of the findings

You must support the dissection by previous literature (theories + researches)

  • Don’t let these dominate
  • Highlight one or two important limitations ( the number of participants + they only represent one culture)
  • State how you tried to minimise their impact.
  • State how they could be addressed in future.

Future research and applications

  • Based on your findings, whom will your research benefit?
  • How could it be used to change practice?
  • How could future research add to your findings?

Concluding paragraph

  • Summarises your report
  • No new ideas
  • Emphasises the key contributions of your research

Reflexivity (100 words)

  • Write a retrospective reflexive account of developing and using the method
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the role of reflexivity in qualitative research, taking into account, for example, the researcher’s background, the role played by different accounts, the role of institutions, assumptions behind your research aims and methods
  • Explain what you expected to find (and why) and whether these expectations were borne out
  • Discuss any methodological problems encountered and limitations of the research


  • References in the list and text in the full Harvard format
    • Every paper referenced to has entry in the list
    • Reference list, not a bibliography
  • See support information on Moodle
  • Common source of error in student assignments!

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